The Journal of Information Processing Systems
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Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol. 12, No.2, 2016
Image compression is an essential technique for saving time and storage space for the gigantic amount of data generated by images. This paper introduces an adaptive source-mapping scheme that greatly improves bit- level lossless grayscale image compression. In the proposed mapping scheme, the frequency of occurrence of each symbol in the original image is computed. According to their corresponding frequencies, these symbols are sorted in descending order. Based on this order, each symbol is replaced by an 8-bit weighted fixed-length code. This replacement will generate an equivalent binary source with an increased length of successive identical symbols (0s or 1s). Different experiments using Lempel-Ziv lossless image compression algorithms have been conducted on the generated binary source. Results show that the newly proposed mapping scheme achieves some dramatic improvements in regards to compression ratios.
TCS_SHA-3 is a family of four cryptographic hash functions that are covered by a United States patent (US 2009/0262925). The digest sizes are 224, 256, 384 and 512 bits. The hash functions use bijective functions in place of the standard compression functions. In this paper we describe first and second preimage attacks on the full hash functions. The second preimage attack requires negligible time and the first preimage attack requires O(236) time. In addition to these attacks, we also present a negligible time second preimage attack on a strengthened variant of the TCS_SHA-3. All the attacks have negligible memory requirements. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior cryptanalysis of any member of the TCS_SHA-3 family in the literature.
Spectrum sensing is an essential function that enables cognitive radio technology to explore spectral holes and resourcefully access them without any harmful interference to the licenses user. Spectrum sensing done by a single node is highly affected by fading and shadowing. Thus, to overcome this, cooperative spectrum sensing was introduced. Currently, the advancements in multiple antennas have given a new dimension to cognitive radio research. In this paper, we propose a multiple energy detector for cooperative spectrum sensing schemes based on the evidence theory. Also, we propose a reporting mechanism for multiple energy detectors. With our proposed system, we show that a multiple energy detector using a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on evidence theory increases the reliability of the system, which ultimately increases the spectrum sensing and reduces the reporting time. Also in simulation results, we show the probability of error for the proposed system. Our simulation results show that our proposed system outperforms the conventional energy detector system
A primary task in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is data collection. The main objective of this task is to collect sensor readings from sensor fields at predetermined sinks using routing protocols without conducting network processing at intermediate nodes, which have been proved as being inefficient in many research studies using a static sink. The major drawback is that sensor nodes near a data sink are prone to dissipate more energy power than those far away due to their role as relay nodes. Recently, novel WSN architectures based on mobile sinks and mobile relay nodes, which are able to move inside the region of a deployed WSN, which has been developed in most research works related to mobile WSN mainly exploit mobility to reduce and balance energy consumption to enhance communication reliability among sensor nodes. Our main purpose in this paper is to propose a solution to the problem of deploying mobile data collectors for alleviating the high traffic load and resulting bottleneck in a sink’s vicinity, which are caused by static approaches. For this reason, several WSNs based on mobile elements have been proposed. We studied two key issues in WSN mobility: the impact of the mobile element (sink or relay nodes) and the impact of the mobility model on WSN based on its performance expressed in terms of energy efficiency and reliability. We conducted an extensive set of simulation experiments. The results obtained reveal that the collection approach based on relay nodes and the mobility model based on stochastic perform better.
In 2004, Yang et al. proposed a threshold proxy signature scheme that efficiently reduced the computational complexity of previous schemes. In 2009, Hu and Zhang presented some security leakages of Yang’s scheme and proposed an improvement to eliminate the security leakages that had been pointed out. In this paper, we will point out that both Yang and Hu’s schemes still have some security weaknesses, which cannot resist warrant attacks where an adversary can forge valid proxy signatures by changing the warrant . We also propose two secure improvements for these schemes.
Due to the proliferation of data being exchanged and the increase of dependency on this data for critical decision-making, it has become imperative to ensure the trustworthiness of the data at the receiving end in order to obtain reliable results. Data provenance, the derivation history of data, is a useful tool for evaluating the trustworthiness of data. Various frameworks have been proposed to evaluate the trustworthiness of data based on data provenance. In this paper, we briefly review a history of these frameworks for evaluating the trustworthiness of data and present an overview of some prominent state-of-the-art evaluation frameworks. Moreover, we provide a comparative analysis of two key frameworks by evaluating various aspects in an executional environment. Our analysis points to various open research issues and provides an understanding of the functionalities of the frameworks that are used to evaluate the trustworthiness of data.
Cloud computing is a distributed computing model that has lot of drawbacks and faces difficulties. Many new innovative and emerging techniques take advantage of its features. In this paper, we explore the security threats to and Risk Assessments for cloud computing, attack mitigation frameworks, and the risk-based dynamic access control for cloud computing. Common security threats to cloud computing have been explored and these threats are addressed through acceptable measures via governance and effective risk management using a tailored Security Risk Approach. Most existing Threat and Risk Assessment (TRA) schemes for cloud services use a converse thinking approach to develop theoretical solutions for minimizing the risk of security breaches at a minimal cost. In our study, we propose an improved Attack-Defense Tree mechanism designated as iADTree, for solving the TRA problem in cloud computing environments.
Global value numbering (GVN) is a method for detecting equivalent expressions in programs. Most of the GVN algorithms concentrate on detecting equalities among variables and hence, are limited in their ability to identify value-based redundancies. In this paper, we suggest improvements by which the efficient GVN algo- rithm by Gulwani and Necula (2007) can be made to detect expression equivalences that are required for identifying value based redundancies. The basic idea for doing so is to use an anticipability-based Join algo- rithm to compute more precise equivalence information at join points. We provide a proof of correctness of the improved algorithm and show that its running time is a polynomial in the number of expressions in the program
System Architecture Evolution (SAE) with Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been used as the key technology for the next generation mobile networks. To support mobility in the LTE/SAE-based mobile networks, the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIP), in which the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) of the PMIP is deployed at the Serving Gateway (S-GW) of LTE/SAE and the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) of PMIP is employed at the PDN Gateway (P-GW) of LTE/SAE, is being considered. In the meantime, the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and the Locator Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP) have recently been proposed with the identifier-locator separation principle, and they can be used for mobility management over the global-scale networks. In this paper, we discuss how to provide the inter-domain mobility management over PMIP-based LTE/SAE networks by investigating three possible scenarios: mobile IP with PMIP (denoted by MIP-PMIP-LTE/SAE), HIP with PMIP (denoted by HIP-PMIP-LTE/SAE), and LISP with PMIP (denoted by LISP-PMIP-LTE/SAE). For performance analysis of the candidate inter-domain mobility management schemes, we analyzed the traffic overhead at a central agent and the total transmission delay required for control and data packet delivery. From the numerical results, we can see that HIP-PMIP-LTE/SAE and LISP-PMIP-LTE/SAE are preferred to MIP-PMIP-LTE/SAE in terms of traffic overhead; whereas, LISP-PMIP-LTE/SAE is preferred to HIP-PMIP-LTE/SAE and MIP-PMIP-LTE/SAE in the viewpoint of total transmission delay.
This paper presents a complete method for vehicle detection and tracking in a fixed setting based on computer vision. Vehicle detection is performed based on Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature matching. With SIFT feature detection and matching, the geometrical relations between the two images is estimated. Then, the previous image is aligned with the current image so that moving vehicles can be detected by analyzing the difference image of the two aligned images. Vehicle tracking is also performed based on SIFT feature matching. For the decreasing of time consumption and maintaining higher tracking accuracy, the detected candidate vehicle in the current image is matched with the vehicle sample in the tracking sample set, which contains all of the detected vehicles in previous images. Most remarkably, the management of vehicle entries and exits is realized based on SIFT feature matching with an efficient update mechanism of the tracking sample set. This entire method is proposed for highway traffic environment where there are no non- automotive vehicles or pedestrians, as these would interfere with the results.
Gene identification is at the center of genomic studies. Although the first phase of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has been claimed to be complete, the annotation of the functional elements is far from being so. Computational methods in gene identification continue to play important roles in this area and other relevant issues. So far, a lot of work has been performed on this area, and a plethora of computational methods and avenues have been developed. Many review papers have summarized these methods and other related work. However, most of them focus on the methodologies from a particular aspect or perspective. Different from these existing bodies of research, this paper aims to comprehensively summarize the mainstream computational methods in gene identification and tries to provide a short but concise technical reference for future studies. Moreover, this review sheds light on the emerging trends and cutting-edge techniques that are believed to be capable of leading the research on this field in the future.
In this paper we present some research results on computing intensive applications using modern high performance architectures and from the perspective of high computational needs. Computing intensive applications are an important family of applications in distributed computing domain. They have been object of study using different distributed computing paradigms and infrastructures. Such applications distinguish for their demanding needs for CPU computing, independently of the amount of data associated with the problem instance. Among computing intensive applications, there are applications based on simulations, aiming to maximize system resources for processing large computations for simulation. In this research work, we consider an application that simulates scheduling and resource allocation in a Grid computing system using Genetic Algorithms. In such application, a rather large number of simulations is needed to extract meaningful statistical results about the behavior of the simulation results. We study the performance of Oracle Grid Engine for such application running in a Cluster of high computing capacities. Several scenarios were generated to measure the response time and queuing time under different workloads and number of nodes in the cluster.
The accuracy of training-based activity recognition depends on the training procedure and the extent to which the training dataset comprehensively represents the activity and its varieties. Additionally, training incurs substantial cost and effort in the process of collecting training data. To address these limitations, we have developed a training-free activity recognition approach based on a fuzzy logic algorithm that utilizes a generic activity model and an associated activity semantic knowledge. The approach is validated through experimentation with real activity datasets. Results show that the fuzzy logic based algorithms exhibit comparable or better accuracy than other trainingbased approaches.
Recent technological advances provide the opportunity to use large amounts of multimedia data from a multitude of sensors with different modalities (e.g., video, text) for the detection and characterization of criminal activity. Their integration can compensate for sensor and modality deficiencies by using data from other available sensors and modalities. However, building such an integrated system at the scale of neighborhood and cities is challenging due to the large amount of data to be considered and the need to ensure a short response time to potential criminal activity. In this paper, we present a system that enables multi-modal data collection at scale and automates the detection of events of interest for the surveillance and reconnaissance of criminal activity. The proposed system showcases novel analytical tools that fuse multimedia data streams to automatically detect and identify specific criminal events and activities. More specifically, the system detects and analyzes series of incidents (an incident is an occurrence or artifact relevant to a criminal activity extracted from a single media stream) in the spatiotemporal domain to extract events (actual instances of criminal events) while cross-referencing multimodal media streams and incidents in time and space to provide a comprehensive view to a human operator while avoiding information overload. We present several case studies that demonstrate how the proposed system can provide law enforcement personnel with forensic and real time tools to identify and track potential criminal activity.
The confinement problem was first noted four decades ago. Since then, a huge amount of efforts have been spent on defining and mitigating the problem. The evolution of technologies from traditional operating systems to mobile and cloud computing brings about new security challenges. It is perhaps timely that we review the work that has been done. We discuss the foundational principles from classical works, as well as the efforts towards solving the confinement problem in three domains: operating systems, mobile computing, and cloud computing. While common issues exist across all three domains, unique challenges arise for each of them, which we discuss.
Since a social network by definition is so diverse, the problem of estimating the preferences of its users is becoming increasingly essential for personalized applications, which range from service recommender systems to the targeted advertising of services. However, unlike traditional estimation problems where the underlying target distribution is stationary; estimating a user"'"s interests typically involves non-stationary distributions. The consequent time varying nature of the distribution to be tracked imposes stringent constraints on the "unlearning” capabilities of the estimator used. Therefore, resorting to strong estimators that converge with a probability of 1 is inefficient since they rely on the assumption that the distribution of the user"'"s preferences is stationary. In this vein, we propose to use a family of stochastic-learning based Weak estimators for learning and tracking a user"'"s time varying interests. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed paradigm outperforms some of the traditional legacy approaches that represent the state-of-the-art technology.
The most important criterion for achieving the maximum performance in a wireless mesh network (WMN) is to limit the interference within the network. For this purpose, especially in a multi-radio network, the best option is to use non-overlapping channels among different radios within the same interference range. Previous works that have considered non-overlapping channels in IEEE 802.11a as the basis for performance optimization, have considered the link quality across all channels to be uniform. In this paper, we present a measurement-based study of link quality across all channels in an IEEE 802.11a-based indoor WMN test bed. Our results show that the generalized assumption of uniform performance across all channels does not hold good in practice for an indoor environment and signal quality depends on the geometry around the me routers.
This paper describes different aspects of a typical RFID implementation. Section 1 provides a brief overview of the concept of Automatic Identification and compares the use of different technologies while Section 2 describes the basic components of a typical RFID system. Section 3 and Section 4 deal with the detailed specifications of RFID transponders and RFID interrogators respectively. Section 5 highlights different RFID standards and protocols and Section 6 enumerates the wide variety of applications where RFID systems are known to have made a positive improvement. Section 7 deals with privacy issues concerning the use of RFIDs and Section 8 describes common RFID system vulnerabilities. Section 9 covers a variety of RFID security issues, followed by a detailed listing of countermeasures and precautions in Section 10.
Granular Computing has emerged as a unified and coherent framework of designing, processing, and interpretation of information granules. Information granules are formalized within various frameworks such as sets (interval mathematics), fuzzy sets, rough sets, shadowed sets, probabilities (probability density functions), to name several the most visible approaches. In spite of the apparent diversity of the existing formalisms, there are some underlying commonalities articulated in terms of the fundamentals, algorithmic developments and ensuing application domains. In this study, we introduce two pivotal concepts: a principle of justifiable granularity and a method of an optimal information allocation where information granularity is regarded as an important design asset. We show that these two concepts are relevant to various formal setups of information granularity and offer constructs supporting the design of information granules and their processing. A suite of applied studies is focused on knowledge management in which case we identify several key categories of schemes present there.
In earlier days, most of the data carried on communication networks was textual data requiring limited bandwidth. With the rise of multimedia and network technologies, the bandwidth requirements of data have increased considerably. If a network link at any time is not able to meet the minimum bandwidth requirement of data, data transmission at that path becomes difficult, which leads to network congestion. This causes delay in data transmission and might also lead to packet drops in the network. The retransmission of these lost packets would aggravate the situation and jam the network. In this paper, we aim at providing a solution to the problem of network congestion in mobile ad hoc networks [1, 2] by designing a protocol that performs routing intelligently and minimizes the delay in data transmission. Our Objective is to move the traffic away from the shortest path obtained by a suitable shortest path calculation algorithm to a less congested path so as to minimize the number of packet drops during data transmission and to avoid unnecessary delay. For this we have proposed a protocol named as Congestion Aware Selection Of Path With Efficient Routing (CASPER). Here, a router runs the shortest path algorithm after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints. The proposed protocol has been compared with two link state protocols namely, OSPF [3, 4] and OLSR [5, 6, 7, 8].The results achieved show that our protocol performs better in terms of network throughput and transmission delay in case of bulky data transmission.
Vehicular networks are a promising application of mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we introduce an efficient broadcast technique, called CB-S (Cell Broadcast for Streets), for vehicular networks with occlusions such as skyscrapers. In this environment, the road network is fragmented into cells such that nodes in a cell can communicate with any node within a two cell distance. Each mobile node is equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit and a map of the cells. The cell map has information about the cells including their identifier and the coordinates of the upper-right and lower-left corner of each cell. CB-S has the following desirable property. Broadcast of a message is performed by rebroadcasting the message from every other cell in the terrain. This characteristic allows CB-S to achieve an efficient performance. Our simulation results indicate that messages always reach all nodes in the wireless network. This perfect coverage is achieved with minimal overhead. That is, CB-S uses a low number of nodes to disseminate the data packets as quickly as probabilistically possible. This efficiency gives it the advantage of low delay. To show these benefits, we give simulations results to compare CB-S with four other broadcast techniques. In practice, CB-S can be used for information dissemination, or to reduce the high cost of destination discovery in routing protocols. By also specify the radius of affected zone, CB-S is also more efficient when broadcast to a subset of the nodes is desirable.
Cryptographic hash functions reduce inputs of arbitrary or very large length to a short string of fixed length. All hash function designs start from a compression function with fixed length inputs. The compression function itself is designed from scratch, or derived from a block cipher or a permutation. The most common procedure to extend the domain of a compression function in order to obtain a hash function is a simple linear iteration; however, some variants use multiple iterations or a tree structure that allows for parallelism. This paper presents a survey of 17 extenders in the literature. It considers the natural question whether these preserve the security properties of the compression function, and more in particular collision resistance, second preimage resistance, preimage resistance and the pseudo-random oracle property.
This paper proposes a novel reversible data hiding scheme based on a Vector Quantization (VQ) codebook. The proposed scheme uses the principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm to sort the codebook and to find two similar codewords of an image block. According to the secret to be embedded and the difference between those two similar codewords, the original image block is transformed into a difference number table. Finally, this table is compressed by entropy coding and sent to the receiver. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve greater hiding capacity, about five bits per index, with an acceptable bit rate. At the receiver end, after the compressed code has been decoded, the image can be recovered to a VQ compressed image.
The interconnection of mobile devices in urban environments can open up a lot of vistas for collaboration and content-based services. This will require setting up of a network in an urban environment which not only provides the necessary services to the user but also ensures that the network is secure and energy efficient. In this paper, we propose a secure, energy efficient dynamic routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks in urban environments. A decision is made by every node based on various parameters like longevity, distance, battery power which measure the node and link quality to decide the next hop in the route. This ensures that the total load is distributed evenly while conserving the energy of battery-constrained nodes. The protocol also maintains a trusted population for each node through Dynamic Trust Factor (DTF) which ensures secure communication in the environment by gradually isolating the malicious nodes. The results obtained show that the proposed protocol when compared with another energy efficient protocol (MMBCR) and a widely accepted protocol (DSR) gives far better results in terms of energy efficiency. Similarly, it also outdoes a secure protocol (QDV) when it comes to detecting malicious nodes in the network.
The trend of Next Generation Networks’ (NGN) evolution is towards providing multiple and multimedia services to users through ubiquitous networks. The aim of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is to integrate mobile communication networks and computer networks. The IMS plays an important role in NGN services, which can be achieved by heterogeneous networks and different access technologies. IMS can be used to manage all service related issues such as Quality of Service (QoS), Charging, Access Control, User and Services Management. Nowadays, internet technology is changing with each passing day. New technologies yield new impact to IMS. In this paper, we perform a survey of IMS and discuss the different impacts of new technologies on IMS such as P2P, SCIM, Web Service and its security issues.
Due to the convergence of voice, data, and video, today’s telecom operators are facing the complexity of service and network management to offer differentiated value-added services that meet customer expectations. Without the operations support of well-developed Business Support System/Operations Support System (BSS/OSS), it is difficult to timely and effectively provide competitive services upon customer request. In this paper, a suite of NGOSS-based Telecom OSS (TOSS) is developed for the support of fulfillment and assurance operations of telecom services and IT services. Four OSS groups, TOSS-P (intelligent service provisioning), TOSS-N (integrated large-scale network management), TOSS-T (trouble handling and resolution), and TOSS-Q (end-to-end service quality management), are organized and integrated following the standard telecom operation processes (i.e., eTOM). We use IPTV and IP-VPN operation scenarios to show how these OSS groups co-work to support daily business operations with the benefits of cost reduction and revenue acceleration.
By providing ubiquitous Internet connectivity, wireless networks offer more convenient ways for users to surf the Internet. However, wireless networks encounter more technological challenges than wired networks, such as bandwidth, security problems, and handoff latency. Thus, this paper proposes new technologies to solve these problems. First, a Security Access Gateway (SAG) is proposed to solve the security issue. Originally, mobile terminals were unable to process high security calculations because of their low calculating power. SAG not only offers high calculating power to encrypt the encryption demand of SAG¡¯s domain, but also helps mobile terminals to establish a multiple safety tunnel to maintain a secure domain. Second, Robust Header Compression (RoHC) technology is adopted to increase the utilization of bandwidth. Instead of Access Point (AP), Access Gateway (AG) is used to deal with the packet header compression and de-compression from the wireless end. AG¡¯s high calculating power is able to reduce the load on AP. In the original architecture, AP has to deal with a large number of demands by header compression/de-compression from mobile terminals. Eventually, wireless networks must offer users ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming¡±. For wireless networks to achieve ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming,¡± we can use Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) technology. Nevertheless, such technology might cause latency. Furthermore, how the security tunnel and header compression established before the handoff can be used by mobile terminals handoff will be another great challenge. Thus, this paper proposes to solve the problem by using Early Binding Updates (EBU) and Security Access Gateway (SAG) to offer a complete mechanism with low latency, low handoff mechanism calculation, and high security.
Face recognition presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision, and as such has received a great deal of attention over the last few years because of its many applications in various domains. Face recognition techniques can be broadly divided into three categories based on the face data acquisition methodology: methods that operate on intensity images; those that deal with video sequences; and those that require other sensory data such as 3D information or infra-red imagery. In this paper, an overview of some of the well-known methods in each of these categories is provided and some of the benefits and drawbacks of the schemes mentioned therein are examined. Furthermore, a discussion outlining the incentive for using face recognition, the applications of this technology, and some of the difficulties plaguing current systems with regard to this task has also been provided. This paper also mentions some of the most recent algorithms developed for this purpose and attempts to give an idea of the state of the art of face recognition technology.
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