The Journal of Information Processing Systems
(JIPS) is the official international journal of the Korea Information Processing Society.
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ISSN: 1976-913X (Print), ISSN: 2092-805X (Online)
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Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol. 13, No.6, 2017
The Journal of Information Processing Systems (JIPS) is one of the journals published by the Korean Information Processing Society (KIPS), which publishes papers related to a wide variety of advanced research fields including systems, applications, networks, architecture, algorithms, security, and so forth. The organization and has the indices such as ESCI, SCOPUS, EI COMPENDEX, DOI, DBLP, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and CrossRef. There are four divisions: Computer System and Theory, Multimedia Systems and Graphics, Communication Systems and Security, and Information Systems and Application.
Quorum-based algorithms are widely used for solving several problems in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) and wireless sensor networks (WSN). Several quorum-based protocols are proposed for multi-hop ad hoc networks that each one has its pros and cons. Quorum-based protocol (QEC or QPS) is the first study in the asynchronous sleep scheduling protocols. At the time, most of the proposed protocols were non-adaptive ones. But nowadays, adaptive quorum-based protocols have gained increasing attention, because we need protocols which can change their quorum size adaptively with network conditions. In this paper, we first introduce the most popular quorum systems and explain quorum system properties and its performance criteria. Then, we present a comparative and comprehensive survey of the non-adaptive and adaptive quorum-based protocols which are subsequently discussed in depth. We also present the comparison of different quorum systems in terms of the expected quorum overlap size (EQOS) and active ratio. Finally, we summarize the pros and cons of current adaptive and non-adaptive quorum-based protocols.
Recently, the development of the smart home field provides a range of services to install and keep the smart home appliance in a user's residential environment pleasantly. However, the conventional system method is not convenient enough to use properly because users have to select a device and manually operate the device on their own. In this paper, we propose a system to set the priority of the devices selected by the user and proceed with the task. When a user selects a device, the system recommends an optimal device associated with the device. The system compares and sets the priority of each device, carrying out the task one by one according to the set priority. Therefore, the proposed system is expected to provide users with increased convenience and more efficient task management.
Fuzzy co-clustering is sensitive to noise data. To overcome this noise sensitivity defect, possibilistic clustering relaxes the constraints in FCM-type fuzzy (co-)clustering. In this paper, we introduce a new possibilistic fuzzy co-clustering algorithm based on information bottleneck (ibPFCC). This algorithm combines fuzzy co- clustering and possibilistic clustering, and formulates an objective function which includes a distance function that employs information bottleneck theory to measure the distance between feature data point and feature cluster centroid. Many experiments were conducted on three datasets and one artificial dataset. Experimental results show that ibPFCC is better than such prominent fuzzy (co-)clustering algorithms as FCM, FCCM, RFCC and FCCI, in terms of accuracy and robustness.
With increasing interests in renewables, more consumers are installing an energy storage system (ESS) in their backyards, and thus, the ESS will play a critical role in the emerging smart grid. Due to mechanical properties, however its operational dynamics must be well understood before connecting the ESS to the smart grid (and eventually to an IT system). To this end, we investigate charging and discharging processes in detail. This paper, then, proposes methods for four type tests (state of charge test, conversion efficiency test, response time test, and ramp rate test) that can assess the dynamics of the ESS. The proposed methods can capture accurate delay values of mechanical processes in the ESS, and it is expected for those values to help design real-time communication systems in the smart grid involving the ESS.
One of the most visible developments in Decision Support Systems (DSS) was the emergence of rule-based expert systems. Hence, despite their success in many sectors, developers of Medical Rule-Based Systems have met several critical problems. Firstly, the rules are related to a clearly stated subject. Secondly, a rule-based system can only learn by updating of its rule-base, since it requires explicit knowledge of the used domain. Solutions to these problems have been sought through improved techniques and tools, improved development paradigms, knowledge modeling languages and ontology, as well as advanced reasoning techniques such as case-based reasoning (CBR) which is well suited to provide decision support in the healthcare setting. However, using CBR reveals some drawbacks, mainly in its interrelated tasks: the retrieval and the adaptation. For the retrieval task, a major drawback raises when several similar cases are found and consequently several solutions. Hence, a choice for the best solution must be done. To overcome these limitations, numerous useful works related to the retrieval task were conducted with simple and convenient procedures or by combining CBR with other techniques. Through this paper, we provide a combining approach using the multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to help, the traditional retrieval task of CBR, in choosing the best solution. Afterwards, we integrate this approach in a decision model to support medical decision. We present, also, some preliminary results and suggestions to extend our approach.
Many organizations today use patch management systems to uniformly manage software vulnerabilities. However, the patch management system does not guarantee the integrity of the patch in the process of providing the patch to the client. In this paper, we propose a method to guarantee patch integrity through dual electronic signatures. The dual electronic signatures are performed by the primary distribution server with the first digital signature and the secondary distribution server with the second digital signature. The dual electronic signature ensures ensure that there is no forgery or falsification in the patch transmission process, so that the client can verify that the patch provided is a normal patch. The dual electronic signatures can enhance the security of the patch management system, providing a secure environment for clients.
MiRNA is a biological short sequence, which plays a crucial role in almost all important biological process. MiRNA patterns are common sequence segments of multiple mature miRNA sequences, and they are of significance in identifying miRNAs due to the functional implication in miRNA patterns. In the proposed approach, the primary miRNA patterns are produced from sequence alignment, and they are then cut into short segment miRNA patterns. From the segment miRNA patterns, the candidate miRNA patterns are selected based on estimated probability, and from which, the potential miRNA patterns are further selected according to the classification performance between authentic and artificial miRNA sequences. Three parameters are suggested that bi-nucleotides are employed to compute the estimated probability of segment miRNA patterns, and top 1% segment miRNA patterns of length four in the order of estimated probabilities are selected as potential miRNA patterns.
The network coding mechanism has attracted much attention because of its advantage of enhanced network throughput which is a desirable characteristic especially in a multi-hop wireless network with limited link capacity such as the device-to-device (D2D) communication network of 5G. COPE proposes to use the XOR- based network coding in the two-hop wireless network topology. For multi-hop wireless networks, the Distributed Coding-Aware Routing (DCAR) mechanism was proposed, in which the coding conditions for two flows intersecting at an intermediate node are defined and the routing metric to improve the coding opportunity by preferring those routes with longer queues is designed. Because the routes with longer queues may increase the delay, DCAR is inefficient in delivering real-time multimedia traffic flows. In this paper, we propose a network coding-aware routing protocol for multi-hop wireless networks that enhances DCAR by considering traffic load distribution and link quality. From this, we can achieve higher network throughput and lower end-to-end delay at the same time for the proper delivery of time-sensitive data flow. The Qualnet-based simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms DCAR in terms of throughput and delay.
This paper introduces a new type of determining factor for Pseudo Random Strings (PRS). This classification depends upon a mathematical property called Finite Induction (FI). FI is similar to a Markov Model in that it presents a model of the sequence under consideration and determines the generating rules for this sequence. If these rules obey certain criteria, then we call the sequence generating these rules FI a PRS. We also consider the relationship of these kinds of PRS’s to Good/deBruijn graphs and Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR). We show that binary sequences from these special graphs have the FI property. We also show how such FI PRS’s can be generated without consideration of the Hamiltonian cycles of the Good/deBruijn graphs. The FI PRS’s also have maximum Shannon entropy, while sequences from LFSR’s do not, nor are such sequences FI random.
As interest in big data has increased recently, NoSQL, a solution for storing and processing big data, is getting attention. NoSQL supports high speed, high availability, and high scalability, but is limited in areas where data integrity is important because it does not support multiple row transactions. To overcome these drawbacks, many studies are underway to support multiple row transactions in NoSQL. However, existing studies have a disadvantage that the number of transactions that can be processed per unit of time is low and performance is degraded. Therefore, in this paper, we design and implement a multi-row transaction system for data integrity in big data environment based on HBase, a column-based NoSQL which is widely used recently. The multi- row transaction system efficiently performs multi-row transactions by adding columns to manage transaction information for every user table. In addition, it controls the execution, collision, and recovery of multiple row transactions through the transaction manager, and it communicates with HBase through the communication manager so that it can exchange information necessary for multiple row transactions. Finally, we performed a comparative performance evaluation with HAcid and Haeinsa, and verified the superiority of the multirow transaction system developed in this paper.
Since rapidly disseminating of Internet of Things (IoT) as the new communication paradigm, a number of studies for various applications is being carried out. Especially, interest in the smart medical system is rising. In the smart medical system, a number of medical devices are distributed in popular area such as station and medical center, and this high density of medical device distribution can cause serious performance degradation of communication, referred to as the coexistence problem. When coexistence problem occurs in smart medical system, reliable transmitting of patient’s biological information may not be guaranteed and patient’s life can be jeopardized. Therefore, coexistence problem in smart medical system should be resolved. In this paper, we propose a distributed coexistence mitigation scheme for IoT-based smart medical system which can dynamically avoid interference in coexistence situation and can guarantee reliable communication. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, we perform extensive simulations by comparing with IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol which is a traditional low-power communication technology.
The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) enables physical objects or things to be virtually accessible for both consuming and providing services. Undue access from irresponsible activities becomes an interesting issue to address. Maintenance of data integrity and privacy of objects is important from the perspective of security. Privacy can be achieved through various techniques: password authentication, cryptography, and the use of mathematical models to assess the level of security of other objects. Individual methods like these are less effective in increasing the security aspect. Comprehensive security schemes such as the use of frameworks are considered better, regardless of the framework model used, whether centralized, semi-centralized, or distributed ones. In this paper, we propose a new semi-centralized security framework that aims to improve privacy in IoT using the parameters of trust and reputation. A new algorithm to elect a reputation coordinator, i.e., ConTrust Manager is proposed in this framework. This framework allows each object to determine other objects that are considered trusted before the communication process is implemented. Evaluation of the proposed framework was done through simulation, which shows that the framework can be used as an alternative solution for improving security in the IoT.
The combination texture feature extraction approach for texture image retrieval is proposed in this paper. Two kinds of low level texture features were combined in the approach. One of them was extracted from singular value decomposition (SVD) based dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) coefficients, and the other one was extracted from multi-scale local binary patterns (LBPs). The fusion features of SVD based multi-directional wavelet features and multi-scale LBP features have short dimensions of feature vector. The comparing experiments are conducted on Brodatz and Vistex datasets. According to the experimental results, the proposed method has a relatively better performance in aspect of retrieval accuracy and time complexity upon the existing methods.
To make an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) fly in indoor environments, the indoor locations of the UAV are required. One of the approaches to calculate the locations of an UAV in indoor environments is enhanced trilateration using one Bluetooth-based beacon and three or more access points (APs). However, the locations of the UAV calculated by the common chord-based trilateration has errors due to the distance errors of the beacon measured at the multiple APs. This paper proposes a method that corrects the errors that occur in the process of applying the common chord-based trilateration to calculate the locations of an UAV. In the experiments, the results of measuring the locations using the proposed method in an indoor environment was compared and verified against the result of measuring the locations using the common chord-based trilateration. The proposed method improved the accuracy of location measurement by 81.2% compared to the common chord-based trilateration.
The recent advent of increasingly affordable and powerful 3D scanning devices capable of capturing high resolution range data about real-world objects and environments has fueled research into effective 3D surface reconstruction techniques for rendering the raw point cloud data produced by many of these devices into a form that would make it usable in a variety of application domains. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of the existing literature on surface reconstruction from 3D point clouds. It explains some of the basic surface reconstruction concepts, describes the various factors used to evaluate surface reconstruction methods, highlights some commonly encountered issues in dealing with the raw 3D point cloud data and delineates the tradeoffs between data resolution/accuracy and processing speed. It also categorizes the various techniques for this task and briefly analyzes their empirical evaluation results demarcating their advantages and disadvantages. The paper concludes with a cross-comparison of methods which have been evaluated on the same benchmark data sets along with a discussion of the overall trends reported in the literature. The objective is to provide an overview of the state of the art on surface reconstruction from point cloud data in order to facilitate and inspire further research in this area.
Gene identification is at the center of genomic studies. Although the first phase of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has been claimed to be complete, the annotation of the functional elements is far from being so. Computational methods in gene identification continue to play important roles in this area and other relevant issues. So far, a lot of work has been performed on this area, and a plethora of computational methods and avenues have been developed. Many review papers have summarized these methods and other related work. However, most of them focus on the methodologies from a particular aspect or perspective. Different from these existing bodies of research, this paper aims to comprehensively summarize the mainstream computational methods in gene identification and tries to provide a short but concise technical reference for future studies. Moreover, this review sheds light on the emerging trends and cutting-edge techniques that are believed to be capable of leading the research on this field in the future.
In this paper we present some research results on computing intensive applications using modern high performance architectures and from the perspective of high computational needs. Computing intensive applications are an important family of applications in distributed computing domain. They have been object of study using different distributed computing paradigms and infrastructures. Such applications distinguish for their demanding needs for CPU computing, independently of the amount of data associated with the problem instance. Among computing intensive applications, there are applications based on simulations, aiming to maximize system resources for processing large computations for simulation. In this research work, we consider an application that simulates scheduling and resource allocation in a Grid computing system using Genetic Algorithms. In such application, a rather large number of simulations is needed to extract meaningful statistical results about the behavior of the simulation results. We study the performance of Oracle Grid Engine for such application running in a Cluster of high computing capacities. Several scenarios were generated to measure the response time and queuing time under different workloads and number of nodes in the cluster.
The accuracy of training-based activity recognition depends on the training procedure and the extent to which the training dataset comprehensively represents the activity and its varieties. Additionally, training incurs substantial cost and effort in the process of collecting training data. To address these limitations, we have developed a training-free activity recognition approach based on a fuzzy logic algorithm that utilizes a generic activity model and an associated activity semantic knowledge. The approach is validated through experimentation with real activity datasets. Results show that the fuzzy logic based algorithms exhibit comparable or better accuracy than other trainingbased approaches.
Recent technological advances provide the opportunity to use large amounts of multimedia data from a multitude of sensors with different modalities (e.g., video, text) for the detection and characterization of criminal activity. Their integration can compensate for sensor and modality deficiencies by using data from other available sensors and modalities. However, building such an integrated system at the scale of neighborhood and cities is challenging due to the large amount of data to be considered and the need to ensure a short response time to potential criminal activity. In this paper, we present a system that enables multi-modal data collection at scale and automates the detection of events of interest for the surveillance and reconnaissance of criminal activity. The proposed system showcases novel analytical tools that fuse multimedia data streams to automatically detect and identify specific criminal events and activities. More specifically, the system detects and analyzes series of incidents (an incident is an occurrence or artifact relevant to a criminal activity extracted from a single media stream) in the spatiotemporal domain to extract events (actual instances of criminal events) while cross-referencing multimodal media streams and incidents in time and space to provide a comprehensive view to a human operator while avoiding information overload. We present several case studies that demonstrate how the proposed system can provide law enforcement personnel with forensic and real time tools to identify and track potential criminal activity.
The confinement problem was first noted four decades ago. Since then, a huge amount of efforts have been spent on defining and mitigating the problem. The evolution of technologies from traditional operating systems to mobile and cloud computing brings about new security challenges. It is perhaps timely that we review the work that has been done. We discuss the foundational principles from classical works, as well as the efforts towards solving the confinement problem in three domains: operating systems, mobile computing, and cloud computing. While common issues exist across all three domains, unique challenges arise for each of them, which we discuss.
Since a social network by definition is so diverse, the problem of estimating the preferences of its users is becoming increasingly essential for personalized applications, which range from service recommender systems to the targeted advertising of services. However, unlike traditional estimation problems where the underlying target distribution is stationary; estimating a user"'"s interests typically involves non-stationary distributions. The consequent time varying nature of the distribution to be tracked imposes stringent constraints on the "unlearning” capabilities of the estimator used. Therefore, resorting to strong estimators that converge with a probability of 1 is inefficient since they rely on the assumption that the distribution of the user"'"s preferences is stationary. In this vein, we propose to use a family of stochastic-learning based Weak estimators for learning and tracking a user"'"s time varying interests. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed paradigm outperforms some of the traditional legacy approaches that represent the state-of-the-art technology.
The most important criterion for achieving the maximum performance in a wireless mesh network (WMN) is to limit the interference within the network. For this purpose, especially in a multi-radio network, the best option is to use non-overlapping channels among different radios within the same interference range. Previous works that have considered non-overlapping channels in IEEE 802.11a as the basis for performance optimization, have considered the link quality across all channels to be uniform. In this paper, we present a measurement-based study of link quality across all channels in an IEEE 802.11a-based indoor WMN test bed. Our results show that the generalized assumption of uniform performance across all channels does not hold good in practice for an indoor environment and signal quality depends on the geometry around the me routers.
This paper describes different aspects of a typical RFID implementation. Section 1 provides a brief overview of the concept of Automatic Identification and compares the use of different technologies while Section 2 describes the basic components of a typical RFID system. Section 3 and Section 4 deal with the detailed specifications of RFID transponders and RFID interrogators respectively. Section 5 highlights different RFID standards and protocols and Section 6 enumerates the wide variety of applications where RFID systems are known to have made a positive improvement. Section 7 deals with privacy issues concerning the use of RFIDs and Section 8 describes common RFID system vulnerabilities. Section 9 covers a variety of RFID security issues, followed by a detailed listing of countermeasures and precautions in Section 10.
Granular Computing has emerged as a unified and coherent framework of designing, processing, and interpretation of information granules. Information granules are formalized within various frameworks such as sets (interval mathematics), fuzzy sets, rough sets, shadowed sets, probabilities (probability density functions), to name several the most visible approaches. In spite of the apparent diversity of the existing formalisms, there are some underlying commonalities articulated in terms of the fundamentals, algorithmic developments and ensuing application domains. In this study, we introduce two pivotal concepts: a principle of justifiable granularity and a method of an optimal information allocation where information granularity is regarded as an important design asset. We show that these two concepts are relevant to various formal setups of information granularity and offer constructs supporting the design of information granules and their processing. A suite of applied studies is focused on knowledge management in which case we identify several key categories of schemes present there.
In earlier days, most of the data carried on communication networks was textual data requiring limited bandwidth. With the rise of multimedia and network technologies, the bandwidth requirements of data have increased considerably. If a network link at any time is not able to meet the minimum bandwidth requirement of data, data transmission at that path becomes difficult, which leads to network congestion. This causes delay in data transmission and might also lead to packet drops in the network. The retransmission of these lost packets would aggravate the situation and jam the network. In this paper, we aim at providing a solution to the problem of network congestion in mobile ad hoc networks [1, 2] by designing a protocol that performs routing intelligently and minimizes the delay in data transmission. Our Objective is to move the traffic away from the shortest path obtained by a suitable shortest path calculation algorithm to a less congested path so as to minimize the number of packet drops during data transmission and to avoid unnecessary delay. For this we have proposed a protocol named as Congestion Aware Selection Of Path With Efficient Routing (CASPER). Here, a router runs the shortest path algorithm after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints. The proposed protocol has been compared with two link state protocols namely, OSPF [3, 4] and OLSR [5, 6, 7, 8].The results achieved show that our protocol performs better in terms of network throughput and transmission delay in case of bulky data transmission.
Vehicular networks are a promising application of mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we introduce an efficient broadcast technique, called CB-S (Cell Broadcast for Streets), for vehicular networks with occlusions such as skyscrapers. In this environment, the road network is fragmented into cells such that nodes in a cell can communicate with any node within a two cell distance. Each mobile node is equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit and a map of the cells. The cell map has information about the cells including their identifier and the coordinates of the upper-right and lower-left corner of each cell. CB-S has the following desirable property. Broadcast of a message is performed by rebroadcasting the message from every other cell in the terrain. This characteristic allows CB-S to achieve an efficient performance. Our simulation results indicate that messages always reach all nodes in the wireless network. This perfect coverage is achieved with minimal overhead. That is, CB-S uses a low number of nodes to disseminate the data packets as quickly as probabilistically possible. This efficiency gives it the advantage of low delay. To show these benefits, we give simulations results to compare CB-S with four other broadcast techniques. In practice, CB-S can be used for information dissemination, or to reduce the high cost of destination discovery in routing protocols. By also specify the radius of affected zone, CB-S is also more efficient when broadcast to a subset of the nodes is desirable.
Cryptographic hash functions reduce inputs of arbitrary or very large length to a short string of fixed length. All hash function designs start from a compression function with fixed length inputs. The compression function itself is designed from scratch, or derived from a block cipher or a permutation. The most common procedure to extend the domain of a compression function in order to obtain a hash function is a simple linear iteration; however, some variants use multiple iterations or a tree structure that allows for parallelism. This paper presents a survey of 17 extenders in the literature. It considers the natural question whether these preserve the security properties of the compression function, and more in particular collision resistance, second preimage resistance, preimage resistance and the pseudo-random oracle property.
This paper proposes a novel reversible data hiding scheme based on a Vector Quantization (VQ) codebook. The proposed scheme uses the principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm to sort the codebook and to find two similar codewords of an image block. According to the secret to be embedded and the difference between those two similar codewords, the original image block is transformed into a difference number table. Finally, this table is compressed by entropy coding and sent to the receiver. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve greater hiding capacity, about five bits per index, with an acceptable bit rate. At the receiver end, after the compressed code has been decoded, the image can be recovered to a VQ compressed image.
The interconnection of mobile devices in urban environments can open up a lot of vistas for collaboration and content-based services. This will require setting up of a network in an urban environment which not only provides the necessary services to the user but also ensures that the network is secure and energy efficient. In this paper, we propose a secure, energy efficient dynamic routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks in urban environments. A decision is made by every node based on various parameters like longevity, distance, battery power which measure the node and link quality to decide the next hop in the route. This ensures that the total load is distributed evenly while conserving the energy of battery-constrained nodes. The protocol also maintains a trusted population for each node through Dynamic Trust Factor (DTF) which ensures secure communication in the environment by gradually isolating the malicious nodes. The results obtained show that the proposed protocol when compared with another energy efficient protocol (MMBCR) and a widely accepted protocol (DSR) gives far better results in terms of energy efficiency. Similarly, it also outdoes a secure protocol (QDV) when it comes to detecting malicious nodes in the network.
The trend of Next Generation Networks’ (NGN) evolution is towards providing multiple and multimedia services to users through ubiquitous networks. The aim of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is to integrate mobile communication networks and computer networks. The IMS plays an important role in NGN services, which can be achieved by heterogeneous networks and different access technologies. IMS can be used to manage all service related issues such as Quality of Service (QoS), Charging, Access Control, User and Services Management. Nowadays, internet technology is changing with each passing day. New technologies yield new impact to IMS. In this paper, we perform a survey of IMS and discuss the different impacts of new technologies on IMS such as P2P, SCIM, Web Service and its security issues.
Due to the convergence of voice, data, and video, today’s telecom operators are facing the complexity of service and network management to offer differentiated value-added services that meet customer expectations. Without the operations support of well-developed Business Support System/Operations Support System (BSS/OSS), it is difficult to timely and effectively provide competitive services upon customer request. In this paper, a suite of NGOSS-based Telecom OSS (TOSS) is developed for the support of fulfillment and assurance operations of telecom services and IT services. Four OSS groups, TOSS-P (intelligent service provisioning), TOSS-N (integrated large-scale network management), TOSS-T (trouble handling and resolution), and TOSS-Q (end-to-end service quality management), are organized and integrated following the standard telecom operation processes (i.e., eTOM). We use IPTV and IP-VPN operation scenarios to show how these OSS groups co-work to support daily business operations with the benefits of cost reduction and revenue acceleration.
By providing ubiquitous Internet connectivity, wireless networks offer more convenient ways for users to surf the Internet. However, wireless networks encounter more technological challenges than wired networks, such as bandwidth, security problems, and handoff latency. Thus, this paper proposes new technologies to solve these problems. First, a Security Access Gateway (SAG) is proposed to solve the security issue. Originally, mobile terminals were unable to process high security calculations because of their low calculating power. SAG not only offers high calculating power to encrypt the encryption demand of SAG¡¯s domain, but also helps mobile terminals to establish a multiple safety tunnel to maintain a secure domain. Second, Robust Header Compression (RoHC) technology is adopted to increase the utilization of bandwidth. Instead of Access Point (AP), Access Gateway (AG) is used to deal with the packet header compression and de-compression from the wireless end. AG¡¯s high calculating power is able to reduce the load on AP. In the original architecture, AP has to deal with a large number of demands by header compression/de-compression from mobile terminals. Eventually, wireless networks must offer users ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming¡±. For wireless networks to achieve ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming,¡± we can use Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) technology. Nevertheless, such technology might cause latency. Furthermore, how the security tunnel and header compression established before the handoff can be used by mobile terminals handoff will be another great challenge. Thus, this paper proposes to solve the problem by using Early Binding Updates (EBU) and Security Access Gateway (SAG) to offer a complete mechanism with low latency, low handoff mechanism calculation, and high security.
Face recognition presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision, and as such has received a great deal of attention over the last few years because of its many applications in various domains. Face recognition techniques can be broadly divided into three categories based on the face data acquisition methodology: methods that operate on intensity images; those that deal with video sequences; and those that require other sensory data such as 3D information or infra-red imagery. In this paper, an overview of some of the well-known methods in each of these categories is provided and some of the benefits and drawbacks of the schemes mentioned therein are examined. Furthermore, a discussion outlining the incentive for using face recognition, the applications of this technology, and some of the difficulties plaguing current systems with regard to this task has also been provided. This paper also mentions some of the most recent algorithms developed for this purpose and attempts to give an idea of the state of the art of face recognition technology.
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