The Journal of Information Processing Systems
(JIPS) is the official international journal of the Korea Information Processing Society.
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ISSN: 1976-913X (Print), ISSN: 2092-805X (Online)
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Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol. 13, No.1, 2017
The Journal of Information Processing Systems (JIPS) is the official international journal published by the Korean Information Processing Society. As a leading and multidisciplinary journal, JIPS is indexed in ESCI, SCOPUS, EI COMPENDEX, DOI, DBLP, EBSCO, Google Scholar and CrossRef. Its purpose is to enable researchers and professionals to promote, share, and discuss all major research issues and developments in the field of information processing technologies and other related fields. JIPS publishes diverse papers, including theoretical research contributions presenting new techniques, concepts, or analyses; experience reports; experiments involving the implementation and application of new theories; and tutorials on state-of-the-art technologies related to information processing systems. The subjects covered by this journal include, but are not limited to, topics related to computer systems and theories, multimedia systems and graphics, communication systems and security, and software systems and applications.
This survey paper explores the application of multimodal feedback in automated systems for motor learning. In this paper, we review the findings shown in recent studies in this field using rehabilitation and various motor training scenarios as context. We discuss popular feedback delivery and sensing mechanisms for motion capture and processing in terms of requirements, benefits, and limitations. The selection of modalities is presented via our having reviewed the best-practice approaches for each modality relative to motor task complexity with example implementations in recent work. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of several approaches for integrating modalities in terms of fusion and frequency of feedback during motor tasks. Finally, we review the limitations of perceptual bandwidth and provide an evaluation of the information transfer for each modality.
The need for embedded devices to be able to exchange information with each other and with data centers is essential for the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT). Several existing communication protocols are designed for small devices including the message-queue telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol or the constrained application protocol (CoAP). However, most of the existing implementations are convenient for computers or smart phones but do not consider the strict constraints and limitations with regard resource usage, portability and configuration. In this paper, we report on an industrial research and development project which focuses on the design, implementation, testing and deployment of a MQTT module. The goal of this project is to develop this module for platforms having minimal RAM, flash code memory and processing power. This software module should be fully compliant with the MQTT protocol specification, portable, and inter-operable with other software stacks. In this paper, we present our approach based on abstraction layers to the design of the MQTT module and we discuss the compliance of the implementation with the requirements set including the MISRA static analysis requirements.
Since the progress of digital medical imaging techniques, it has been needed to compress the variety of medical images. In medical imaging, reversible compression of image's region of interest (ROI) which is diagnostically relevant is considered essential. Then, improving the global compression rate of the image can also be obtained by separately coding the ROI part and the remaining image (called background). For this purpose, the present work proposes an efficient reversible discrete cosine transform (RDCT) based embedded image coder designed for lossless ROI coding in very high compression ratio. Motivated by the wavelet structure of DCT, the proposed rearranged structure is well coupled with a lossless embedded zerotree wavelet coder (LEZW), while the background is highly compressed using the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) technique. Results coding shows that the performance of the proposed new coder is much superior to that of various state-of-art still image compression methods.
In this paper, Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy set theory is used to handle the uncertainty of students’ knowledgeon domain concepts in an E-learning system. Their knowledge on these domain concepts has been collected from tests that were conducted during their learning phase. Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy user model is proposed to deal with vagueness in the user’s knowledge description in domain concepts. The user model uses Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy sets for knowledge representation and linguistic rules for updating the user model. The scores obtained by each student were collected in this model and the decision about the students’ knowledge acquisition for each concept whether completely learned, completely known, partially known or completely unknown were placed into the information table. Finally, it has been found that the proposed scheme is more appropriate than the fuzzy scheme.
Nowadays, geographic information system (GIS) is developed and implemented in many areas. A huge volume of vector map data has been accessed unlawfully by hackers, pirates, or unauthorized users. For this reason, we need the methods that help to protect GIS data for storage, multimedia applications, and transmission. In our paper, a selective encryption method is presented based on vertex randomization and hybrid transform in the GIS vector map. In the proposed algorithm, polylines and polygons are focused as the targets for encryption. Objects are classified in each layer, and all coordinates of the significant objects are encrypted by the key sets generated by using chaotic map before changing them in DWT, DFT domain. Experimental results verify the high efficiency visualization by low complexity, high security performance by random processes
Near-field source localization algorithms are very sensitive to sensor gain/phase response errors, and so it is important to calibrate the errors. We took into consideration the uniform linear array and are proposing a blind calibration algorithm that can estimate the directions-of-arrival and range parameters of incident signals and sensor gain/phase responses jointly, without the need for any reference source. They are estimated separately by using an iterative approach, but without the need for good initial guesses. The ambiguities in the estimations of 2-D electric angles and sensor gain/phase responses are also analyzed in this paper. We show that the ambiguities can be remedied by assuming that two sensor phase responses of the array have been previously calibrated. The behavior of the proposed method is illustrated through simulation experiments. The simulation results show that the convergent rate is fast and that the convergent precision is high
The PCI Express is a widely used system bus technology that connects the processor and the peripheral I/O devices. The PCI Express is nowadays regarded as a de facto standard in system area interconnection network. It has good characteristics in terms of high-speed, low power. In addition, PCI Express is becoming popular interconnection network technology as like Gigabit Ethernet, InfiniBand, and Myrinet which are extensively used in high-performance computing. In this paper, we designed and implemented a evaluation platform for interconnect network using PCI Express between two computing nodes. We make use of the non-transparent bridge (NTB) technology of PCI Express in order to isolate between the two subsystems. We constructed a testbed system and evaluated the performance on the testbed.
In this paper, we present an approach to transmit data from the source to the destination through a minimal path (least-cost path) in a computer network of n nodes. The motivation behind our approach is to address the problem of finding a minimal path between the source and destination. From the work we have studied, we found that a Steiner tree with bounded Steiner vertices offers a good solution. A novel algorithm to construct a Steiner tree with vertices and bounded Steiner vertices is proposed in this paper. The algorithm finds a path from each source to each destination at a minimum cost and minimum number of Steiner vertices. We propose both the sequential and parallel versions. We also conducted a comparative study of sequential and parallel versions based on time complexity, which proved that parallel implementation is more efficient than sequential.
This paper proposes a color image coding algorithm based on shape-adaptive all phase biorthogonal transform (SA-APBT). This algorithm is implemented through four procedures: color space conversion, image segmentation, shape coding, and texture coding. Region-of-interest (ROI) and background area are obtained by image segmentation. Shape coding uses chain code. The texture coding of the ROI is prior to the background area. SA-APBT and uniform quantization are adopted in texture coding. Compared with the color image coding algorithm based on shape-adaptive discrete cosine transform (SA-DCT) at the same bit rates, experimental results on test color images reveal that the objective quality and subjective effects of the reconstructed images using the proposed algorithm are better, especially at low bit rates. Moreover, the complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced because of uniform quantization
The wireless sensor networks (WSNs) became a very essential tool in borders and military zones surveillance, for this reason specific applications have been developed. Surveillance is usually accomplished through the deployment of nodes in a random way providing heterogeneous topologies. However, the process of the identification of all nodes located on the network’s outer edge is very long and energy-consuming. Before any other activities on such sensitive networks, we have to identify the border nodes by means of specific algorithms. In this paper, a solution is proposed to solve the problem of energy and time consumption in detecting border nodes by means of node selection. This mechanism is designed with several starter nodes in order to reduce time, number of exchanged packets and then, energy consumption. This method consists of three phases: the first one is to detect triggers which serve to start the mechanism of boundary nodes (BNs) detection, the second is to detect the whole border, and the third is to exclude each BN from the routing tables of all its neighbors so that it cannot be used for the routing.
Effective identification of wireless channel in different scenarios or regions can solve the problems of multipath interference in process of wireless communication. In this paper, different characteristics of wireless channel are extracted based on the arrival time and received signal strength, such as the number of multipath, time delay and delay spread, to establish the feature vector set of wireless channel which is used to train backpropagation (BP) neural network to identify different wireless channels. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify different wireless channels, and the accuracy can reach 97.59%.
Mobile phones are the most common communication devices in history. For this reason, the number of mobile subscribers will increase dramatically in the future. Therefore, the determining the location of a mobile station will become more and more difficult. The mobile station must be authenticated to inform the network of its current location even when the user switches it on or when its location is changed. The most basic weakness in the GSM authentication protocol is the unilateral authentication process where the customer is verified by the system, yet the system is not confirmed by the customer. This creates numerous security issues, including powerlessness against man-in-the-middle attacks, vast bandwidth consumption between VLR and HLR, storage space overhead in VLR, and computation costs in VLR and HLR. In this paper, we propose a secure authentication mechanism based new mobility management method to improve the location management in the GSM network, which suffers from a lot off drawbacks, such as transmission cost and database overload. Numerical analysis is done for both conventional and modified versions and compared together. The numerical results show that our protocol scheme is more secure and that it reduces mobility management costs the most in the GSM network.
In this paper, we propose a novel feature for recognizing handwritten Odia numerals. By using polygonal approximation, each numeral is segmented into segments of equal pixel counts where the centroid of the character is kept as the origin. Three primitive contour features namely, distance (l), angle (?), and arc-to- chord ratio (r), are extracted from these segments. These features are used in a neural classifier so that the numerals are recognized. Other existing features are also considered for being recognized in the neural classifier, in order to perform a comparative analysis. We carried out a simulation on a large data set and conducted a comparative analysis with other features with respect to recognition accuracy and time requirements. Furthermore, we also applied the feature to the numeral recognition of two other languages— Bangla and English. In general, we observed that our proposed contour features outperform other schemes.
In recent decades, the ad hoc network for vehicles has been a core network technology to provide comfort and security to drivers in vehicle environments. However, emerging applications and services require major changes in underlying network models and computing that require new road network planning. Meanwhile, blockchain widely known as one of the disruptive technologies has emerged in recent years, is experiencing rapid development and has the potential to revolutionize intelligent transport systems. Blockchain can be used to build an intelligent, secure, distributed and autonomous transport system. It allows better utilization of the infrastructure and resources of intelligent transport systems, particularly effective for crowdsourcing technology. In this paper, we proposes a vehicle network architecture based on blockchain in the smart city (Block-VN). Block-VN is a reliable and secure architecture that operates in a distributed way to build the new distributed transport management system. We are considering a new network system of vehicles, Block-VN, above them. In addition, we examine how the network of vehicles evolves with paradigms focused on networking and vehicular information. Finally, we discuss service scenarios and design principles for Block-VN.
The recent advent of increasingly affordable and powerful 3D scanning devices capable of capturing high resolution range data about real-world objects and environments has fueled research into effective 3D surface reconstruction techniques for rendering the raw point cloud data produced by many of these devices into a form that would make it usable in a variety of application domains. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of the existing literature on surface reconstruction from 3D point clouds. It explains some of the basic surface reconstruction concepts, describes the various factors used to evaluate surface reconstruction methods, highlights some commonly encountered issues in dealing with the raw 3D point cloud data and delineates the tradeoffs between data resolution/accuracy and processing speed. It also categorizes the various techniques for this task and briefly analyzes their empirical evaluation results demarcating their advantages and disadvantages. The paper concludes with a cross-comparison of methods which have been evaluated on the same benchmark data sets along with a discussion of the overall trends reported in the literature. The objective is to provide an overview of the state of the art on surface reconstruction from point cloud data in order to facilitate and inspire further research in this area.
Gene identification is at the center of genomic studies. Although the first phase of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has been claimed to be complete, the annotation of the functional elements is far from being so. Computational methods in gene identification continue to play important roles in this area and other relevant issues. So far, a lot of work has been performed on this area, and a plethora of computational methods and avenues have been developed. Many review papers have summarized these methods and other related work. However, most of them focus on the methodologies from a particular aspect or perspective. Different from these existing bodies of research, this paper aims to comprehensively summarize the mainstream computational methods in gene identification and tries to provide a short but concise technical reference for future studies. Moreover, this review sheds light on the emerging trends and cutting-edge techniques that are believed to be capable of leading the research on this field in the future.
In this paper we present some research results on computing intensive applications using modern high performance architectures and from the perspective of high computational needs. Computing intensive applications are an important family of applications in distributed computing domain. They have been object of study using different distributed computing paradigms and infrastructures. Such applications distinguish for their demanding needs for CPU computing, independently of the amount of data associated with the problem instance. Among computing intensive applications, there are applications based on simulations, aiming to maximize system resources for processing large computations for simulation. In this research work, we consider an application that simulates scheduling and resource allocation in a Grid computing system using Genetic Algorithms. In such application, a rather large number of simulations is needed to extract meaningful statistical results about the behavior of the simulation results. We study the performance of Oracle Grid Engine for such application running in a Cluster of high computing capacities. Several scenarios were generated to measure the response time and queuing time under different workloads and number of nodes in the cluster.
The accuracy of training-based activity recognition depends on the training procedure and the extent to which the training dataset comprehensively represents the activity and its varieties. Additionally, training incurs substantial cost and effort in the process of collecting training data. To address these limitations, we have developed a training-free activity recognition approach based on a fuzzy logic algorithm that utilizes a generic activity model and an associated activity semantic knowledge. The approach is validated through experimentation with real activity datasets. Results show that the fuzzy logic based algorithms exhibit comparable or better accuracy than other trainingbased approaches.
Recent technological advances provide the opportunity to use large amounts of multimedia data from a multitude of sensors with different modalities (e.g., video, text) for the detection and characterization of criminal activity. Their integration can compensate for sensor and modality deficiencies by using data from other available sensors and modalities. However, building such an integrated system at the scale of neighborhood and cities is challenging due to the large amount of data to be considered and the need to ensure a short response time to potential criminal activity. In this paper, we present a system that enables multi-modal data collection at scale and automates the detection of events of interest for the surveillance and reconnaissance of criminal activity. The proposed system showcases novel analytical tools that fuse multimedia data streams to automatically detect and identify specific criminal events and activities. More specifically, the system detects and analyzes series of incidents (an incident is an occurrence or artifact relevant to a criminal activity extracted from a single media stream) in the spatiotemporal domain to extract events (actual instances of criminal events) while cross-referencing multimodal media streams and incidents in time and space to provide a comprehensive view to a human operator while avoiding information overload. We present several case studies that demonstrate how the proposed system can provide law enforcement personnel with forensic and real time tools to identify and track potential criminal activity.
The confinement problem was first noted four decades ago. Since then, a huge amount of efforts have been spent on defining and mitigating the problem. The evolution of technologies from traditional operating systems to mobile and cloud computing brings about new security challenges. It is perhaps timely that we review the work that has been done. We discuss the foundational principles from classical works, as well as the efforts towards solving the confinement problem in three domains: operating systems, mobile computing, and cloud computing. While common issues exist across all three domains, unique challenges arise for each of them, which we discuss.
Since a social network by definition is so diverse, the problem of estimating the preferences of its users is becoming increasingly essential for personalized applications, which range from service recommender systems to the targeted advertising of services. However, unlike traditional estimation problems where the underlying target distribution is stationary; estimating a user"'"s interests typically involves non-stationary distributions. The consequent time varying nature of the distribution to be tracked imposes stringent constraints on the "unlearning” capabilities of the estimator used. Therefore, resorting to strong estimators that converge with a probability of 1 is inefficient since they rely on the assumption that the distribution of the user"'"s preferences is stationary. In this vein, we propose to use a family of stochastic-learning based Weak estimators for learning and tracking a user"'"s time varying interests. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed paradigm outperforms some of the traditional legacy approaches that represent the state-of-the-art technology.
The most important criterion for achieving the maximum performance in a wireless mesh network (WMN) is to limit the interference within the network. For this purpose, especially in a multi-radio network, the best option is to use non-overlapping channels among different radios within the same interference range. Previous works that have considered non-overlapping channels in IEEE 802.11a as the basis for performance optimization, have considered the link quality across all channels to be uniform. In this paper, we present a measurement-based study of link quality across all channels in an IEEE 802.11a-based indoor WMN test bed. Our results show that the generalized assumption of uniform performance across all channels does not hold good in practice for an indoor environment and signal quality depends on the geometry around the me routers.
This paper describes different aspects of a typical RFID implementation. Section 1 provides a brief overview of the concept of Automatic Identification and compares the use of different technologies while Section 2 describes the basic components of a typical RFID system. Section 3 and Section 4 deal with the detailed specifications of RFID transponders and RFID interrogators respectively. Section 5 highlights different RFID standards and protocols and Section 6 enumerates the wide variety of applications where RFID systems are known to have made a positive improvement. Section 7 deals with privacy issues concerning the use of RFIDs and Section 8 describes common RFID system vulnerabilities. Section 9 covers a variety of RFID security issues, followed by a detailed listing of countermeasures and precautions in Section 10.
Granular Computing has emerged as a unified and coherent framework of designing, processing, and interpretation of information granules. Information granules are formalized within various frameworks such as sets (interval mathematics), fuzzy sets, rough sets, shadowed sets, probabilities (probability density functions), to name several the most visible approaches. In spite of the apparent diversity of the existing formalisms, there are some underlying commonalities articulated in terms of the fundamentals, algorithmic developments and ensuing application domains. In this study, we introduce two pivotal concepts: a principle of justifiable granularity and a method of an optimal information allocation where information granularity is regarded as an important design asset. We show that these two concepts are relevant to various formal setups of information granularity and offer constructs supporting the design of information granules and their processing. A suite of applied studies is focused on knowledge management in which case we identify several key categories of schemes present there.
In earlier days, most of the data carried on communication networks was textual data requiring limited bandwidth. With the rise of multimedia and network technologies, the bandwidth requirements of data have increased considerably. If a network link at any time is not able to meet the minimum bandwidth requirement of data, data transmission at that path becomes difficult, which leads to network congestion. This causes delay in data transmission and might also lead to packet drops in the network. The retransmission of these lost packets would aggravate the situation and jam the network. In this paper, we aim at providing a solution to the problem of network congestion in mobile ad hoc networks [1, 2] by designing a protocol that performs routing intelligently and minimizes the delay in data transmission. Our Objective is to move the traffic away from the shortest path obtained by a suitable shortest path calculation algorithm to a less congested path so as to minimize the number of packet drops during data transmission and to avoid unnecessary delay. For this we have proposed a protocol named as Congestion Aware Selection Of Path With Efficient Routing (CASPER). Here, a router runs the shortest path algorithm after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints. The proposed protocol has been compared with two link state protocols namely, OSPF [3, 4] and OLSR [5, 6, 7, 8].The results achieved show that our protocol performs better in terms of network throughput and transmission delay in case of bulky data transmission.
Vehicular networks are a promising application of mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we introduce an efficient broadcast technique, called CB-S (Cell Broadcast for Streets), for vehicular networks with occlusions such as skyscrapers. In this environment, the road network is fragmented into cells such that nodes in a cell can communicate with any node within a two cell distance. Each mobile node is equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit and a map of the cells. The cell map has information about the cells including their identifier and the coordinates of the upper-right and lower-left corner of each cell. CB-S has the following desirable property. Broadcast of a message is performed by rebroadcasting the message from every other cell in the terrain. This characteristic allows CB-S to achieve an efficient performance. Our simulation results indicate that messages always reach all nodes in the wireless network. This perfect coverage is achieved with minimal overhead. That is, CB-S uses a low number of nodes to disseminate the data packets as quickly as probabilistically possible. This efficiency gives it the advantage of low delay. To show these benefits, we give simulations results to compare CB-S with four other broadcast techniques. In practice, CB-S can be used for information dissemination, or to reduce the high cost of destination discovery in routing protocols. By also specify the radius of affected zone, CB-S is also more efficient when broadcast to a subset of the nodes is desirable.
Cryptographic hash functions reduce inputs of arbitrary or very large length to a short string of fixed length. All hash function designs start from a compression function with fixed length inputs. The compression function itself is designed from scratch, or derived from a block cipher or a permutation. The most common procedure to extend the domain of a compression function in order to obtain a hash function is a simple linear iteration; however, some variants use multiple iterations or a tree structure that allows for parallelism. This paper presents a survey of 17 extenders in the literature. It considers the natural question whether these preserve the security properties of the compression function, and more in particular collision resistance, second preimage resistance, preimage resistance and the pseudo-random oracle property.
This paper proposes a novel reversible data hiding scheme based on a Vector Quantization (VQ) codebook. The proposed scheme uses the principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm to sort the codebook and to find two similar codewords of an image block. According to the secret to be embedded and the difference between those two similar codewords, the original image block is transformed into a difference number table. Finally, this table is compressed by entropy coding and sent to the receiver. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve greater hiding capacity, about five bits per index, with an acceptable bit rate. At the receiver end, after the compressed code has been decoded, the image can be recovered to a VQ compressed image.
The interconnection of mobile devices in urban environments can open up a lot of vistas for collaboration and content-based services. This will require setting up of a network in an urban environment which not only provides the necessary services to the user but also ensures that the network is secure and energy efficient. In this paper, we propose a secure, energy efficient dynamic routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks in urban environments. A decision is made by every node based on various parameters like longevity, distance, battery power which measure the node and link quality to decide the next hop in the route. This ensures that the total load is distributed evenly while conserving the energy of battery-constrained nodes. The protocol also maintains a trusted population for each node through Dynamic Trust Factor (DTF) which ensures secure communication in the environment by gradually isolating the malicious nodes. The results obtained show that the proposed protocol when compared with another energy efficient protocol (MMBCR) and a widely accepted protocol (DSR) gives far better results in terms of energy efficiency. Similarly, it also outdoes a secure protocol (QDV) when it comes to detecting malicious nodes in the network.
The trend of Next Generation Networks’ (NGN) evolution is towards providing multiple and multimedia services to users through ubiquitous networks. The aim of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is to integrate mobile communication networks and computer networks. The IMS plays an important role in NGN services, which can be achieved by heterogeneous networks and different access technologies. IMS can be used to manage all service related issues such as Quality of Service (QoS), Charging, Access Control, User and Services Management. Nowadays, internet technology is changing with each passing day. New technologies yield new impact to IMS. In this paper, we perform a survey of IMS and discuss the different impacts of new technologies on IMS such as P2P, SCIM, Web Service and its security issues.
Due to the convergence of voice, data, and video, today’s telecom operators are facing the complexity of service and network management to offer differentiated value-added services that meet customer expectations. Without the operations support of well-developed Business Support System/Operations Support System (BSS/OSS), it is difficult to timely and effectively provide competitive services upon customer request. In this paper, a suite of NGOSS-based Telecom OSS (TOSS) is developed for the support of fulfillment and assurance operations of telecom services and IT services. Four OSS groups, TOSS-P (intelligent service provisioning), TOSS-N (integrated large-scale network management), TOSS-T (trouble handling and resolution), and TOSS-Q (end-to-end service quality management), are organized and integrated following the standard telecom operation processes (i.e., eTOM). We use IPTV and IP-VPN operation scenarios to show how these OSS groups co-work to support daily business operations with the benefits of cost reduction and revenue acceleration.
By providing ubiquitous Internet connectivity, wireless networks offer more convenient ways for users to surf the Internet. However, wireless networks encounter more technological challenges than wired networks, such as bandwidth, security problems, and handoff latency. Thus, this paper proposes new technologies to solve these problems. First, a Security Access Gateway (SAG) is proposed to solve the security issue. Originally, mobile terminals were unable to process high security calculations because of their low calculating power. SAG not only offers high calculating power to encrypt the encryption demand of SAG¡¯s domain, but also helps mobile terminals to establish a multiple safety tunnel to maintain a secure domain. Second, Robust Header Compression (RoHC) technology is adopted to increase the utilization of bandwidth. Instead of Access Point (AP), Access Gateway (AG) is used to deal with the packet header compression and de-compression from the wireless end. AG¡¯s high calculating power is able to reduce the load on AP. In the original architecture, AP has to deal with a large number of demands by header compression/de-compression from mobile terminals. Eventually, wireless networks must offer users ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming¡±. For wireless networks to achieve ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming,¡± we can use Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) technology. Nevertheless, such technology might cause latency. Furthermore, how the security tunnel and header compression established before the handoff can be used by mobile terminals handoff will be another great challenge. Thus, this paper proposes to solve the problem by using Early Binding Updates (EBU) and Security Access Gateway (SAG) to offer a complete mechanism with low latency, low handoff mechanism calculation, and high security.
Face recognition presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision, and as such has received a great deal of attention over the last few years because of its many applications in various domains. Face recognition techniques can be broadly divided into three categories based on the face data acquisition methodology: methods that operate on intensity images; those that deal with video sequences; and those that require other sensory data such as 3D information or infra-red imagery. In this paper, an overview of some of the well-known methods in each of these categories is provided and some of the benefits and drawbacks of the schemes mentioned therein are examined. Furthermore, a discussion outlining the incentive for using face recognition, the applications of this technology, and some of the difficulties plaguing current systems with regard to this task has also been provided. This paper also mentions some of the most recent algorithms developed for this purpose and attempts to give an idea of the state of the art of face recognition technology.
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